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Known as Persia until 1935, it has an extremely old civilisation - probably old even than Mesopotamia (in nearby modern Iraq).

Persian Folk Music is modal and is linked as in so many cultures to life events - weddings, harvest, celebration etc. The instruments are diverse and regional with a few common to the whole country. A Shawm (Sorna), a Flute (Ney) and a Drum (Dohol or Daf). The music is categorised ethnically: Kurdish (maqam), Khorasa, Turkmen and Mazandran.

Other instruments associated with Iran or Persia are the Setar (A 3 stringed {modern 4} Tanbur with 25 tied gut frets), the Tar (a Lute with 26 tied gut frets and 3 double string courses played with a brass Plectrum), the Kamancheh (a bowed Lute), the Santur (a Hammered Dulcimer with 72 strings in 18 sets), the Ud or Barbat (Short neck Lute of 5 courses) and the Tanbur (a long neck Lute).