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Grand Staff
A set of 5 horizontal lines on which music is written in normal Western notation.

The Melody is normally written on a single stave with a Treble Clef which is the top stave in the diagram.

A Bass line is normally written on a second stave below the Treble with a Bass Clef.

For Instruments which have the capability of playing both, the staves are sometimes written together as a Grand Stave as shown. The Note in the middle between the two is C and by convention is what is properly termed as Middle C.

The clef shows the pitch of the note on the stave, and therefore gives a reference point for all the notes. The Treble Clef starts on the second line from the bottom (the lines are counted upwards) and marks the note 'G' above Middle C. The Bass Clef starts on the 4th line and the two dots are placed either side of the line and this marks F below Middle C. There are other clefs and other positionings for clefs for particular instruments but the two main ones are dealt with here.

If Notes go above or below a stave, they are placed on a temporary line - a leger line - drawn just for that note.