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Viol

 A stringed instrument which is both bowed and fretted. It is also known as the Viola Da Gamba (Leg Viol) as opposed to the Viola Da Bracchio (Arm Viol which is what became the Violin).

 It had 4, 5 or 6 strings and was tuned similar to a Lute - in 4ths with a Major Third in the middle. They were produced in different sizes so that a consort of instruments could play together with different voices.